At each stage of unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD or “fracking”), emissions that can affect human health are released into the air. If you live within a 3-mile radius of any type of UOGD operations, you may be particularly affected by air pollution.
Common air pollutants around UOGD sites include:
- Toxic chemicals and particulate matter (PM) from truck traffic exhaust.
- Toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, and other hydrocarbons from condensate tanks, dehydrators, wastewater impoundment pits, and pipelines associated with UOGD.
- Toxic chemicals from fugitive emissions, blowdowns, and accidents at compressor stations.
- Volatile organic chemical releases from flaring, a process used to burn off excess gas.
- Silica dust from “frac sand,” which is widely used to hold open fractures created in rock during the UOGD process.
How Air Pollution Affects You
People who are exposed to high levels of polluted air from UOGD (“fracking”) can experience many health effects, and children are more at risk than adults. Researchers report that some health problems associated with breathing bad air can happen right away:
- Burning eyes
- Sore throat
- Stomach pain and nausea
- Tingling/numbness in extremities
Researchers are also studying other long-term effects from air pollution such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and poor birth outcomes.
In addition to monitoring air quality near your home, there are many other ways to protect yourself from the potentially harmful effects of air pollution:
- Contact EHP for help
- Use an air purifier: There are many types of air filters for home use. EHP recommends the Austin Air Healthmate because it removes chemicals, small particles, odors, and dust from inside air. This portable unit can easily be moved from room to room and works best in homes that are well air-sealed. The cost of running the unit is about 15 cents an hour and filters last for about 3 years. Although an air filtration system like the Austin Air HealthMate is optimal, there are other low cost options available. Reducing Outdoor Contaminants in Indoor Spaces (ROCIS) offers a DIY, low cost fan/filter to remove particles in the air. To learn more about assembling your own fan/filter, click here.
- Remove avoidable indoor air pollutants
- Keep your home as free of dust as possible since harmful gases and particles can adhere to dust particles.
- Do not allow smoking indoors.
- Avoid the use of pesticides, air fresheners, or other harmful chemicals inside your home.
- Read all labels on cleaning supplies and household products. When possible, choose products that do not contain harsh chemicals, fragrances, irritants and flammable ingredients.
- Use alternatives to harsh chemical cleansers. For example, baking soda is good for scrubbing and a mix of vinegar and water can clean glass.
- Clean or dust using damp, disposable cloths to reduce the chance that contaminants will end up back in your air. Work from the top down.
- Vacuum rather than sweep with a broom to reduce airborne particles. Vacuum at least once a week and use a HEPA filter in your vacuum to remove as many particles from the air as possible.
- Avoid bringing contaminated dirt and dust into your home by removing shoes, coats, and hats when you come indoors. Ask guests to do the same.
- Make sure all appliances such as space heaters, ranges, furnaces, fireplaces, water heaters, and clothes dryers are properly ventilated to the outdoors.
- Do not idle a car in an attached garage. Exhaust fumes are harmful and can enter your home from the garage.
- Keep windows and doors closed and use an air conditioner if you have one, to help keep outdoor air outside.
- Install carbon monoxide detectors in the parts of your house where you spend a lot of time, especially near bedrooms. Be sure to change the batteries when necessary.
- Pay attention to the weather: Use resources like AirNow.gov to better know whether upcoming days will have good, moderate or poor air quality. On days where bad air quality is likely, close windows and go elsewhere if possible. If you are home when the air is unhealthy, limit your activities. During very unhealthy conditions, stay indoors.
If you live near UOGD activities and are concerned about air quality, there are ways to monitor potential air pollution in your environment. For some residents, EHP recommends the use of particulate matter (PM2.5) monitors and SUMMA canisters.
- PurpleAir Monitors: The PurpleAir monitor is another low-cost particulate matter sensor that is becoming widely used around the world. The Purple Air records a range of particulate matter on a continuous basis throughout the monitoring period in µg/m3. The PurpleAir monitor can be linked directly to the PurpleAir website, allowing a real-time upload of particulate matter data to an online data base and mapping tool, with access available to both residents and EHP. Depending on Wi-Fi availability at a home, there may be a need to install the second version of the PurpleAir monitor that is equipped with a memory card for storing data locally on the device that can be downloaded at the end of the monitoring period.
This monitor is available for purchase from purpleair.com and used for outdoor monitoring by EHP in Community Science Projects. The monitor measures PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 using laser counter technology. Indoor monitors are also available on their website: https://www2.purpleair.com/.
- SUMMA canister: SUMMA canisters are another tool residents can use to monitor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other chemicals near industrial sites. VOCs are common air pollutants that are released from many sources, including oil and gas development. Long-term exposure to VOCs can damage the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Short-term exposure can cause eye and respiratory tract irritation, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, fatigue, loss of coordination, allergic skin reactions, nausea, and memory impairment.
Air sampling with SUMMA canisters can take place during different phases of UOGD development, or during events like venting, blowdowns, or accidents. Sampling with the canisters takes anywhere from 30 seconds to 24 hours, depending on the circumstances.
SUMMA canisters cost approximately $200 per use and can be ordered through ALS testing services provider. Though EHP cannot provide the testing for free, they can assist with the testing process and educate residents about the significance of test results. In addition, EHP has a video tutorial available to further explain how to use SUMMA canisters.
- Formaldehyde and hydrogen sulfide badges can be clipped on the SUMMA canister sampler for the same 24-hour period. These badges are factory sealed and ready-for-use. No calibration is needed. Badges are stored in a freezer before use. After use the formaldehyde badge goes in the freezer and the hydrogen sulfide badge can go into the refrigerator before they are mailed back to the lab with the accompanying freezer bag. EHP has a video tutorial available to further explain how to use the badges.